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LM3: Synthesis practice
Due Friday, September 18, 2020, 9:00 AMTime remaining: 2 days 22 hours
Part 1: Answer these questions in a couple sentences. 
1. What is the difference between reliability and validity?
2. Describe different types of measures (e.g. self report, etc.). What are the pros and cons of each?
Part 2. Do the synthesis activity below. 
Topic: The association between daycare and cognitive and social development in children
Read and briefly summarize each abstract below each abstract.  
Abstracts adapted for this activity.
You must always read the entire article when writing your own papers.
Write 2-3 sentences synthesizing what you read (i.e., as an overall summary putting the findings together).
Abstract 1: Vandell et al., 2010
Relations between nonrelative child care (birth to 4 ½ years) and functioning at age 15 were examined (N = 1364). Both quality and quantity of child care were linked to adolescent cognitive and social functioning. Effects were similar in size as those observed at younger ages. Higher quality care predicted higher cognitive-academic achievement at age 15. Higher quality early child care also predicted youth reports of less externalizing social behavior. More hours of nonrelative care predicted greater risk taking and impulsivity at age 15.
Abstract 2: Love et al., 2005
Early Head Start, a federal program begun in 1995 for low-income pregnant women and families with infants and toddlers, was evaluated through a randomized trial of 3,001 families in 17 programs. Interviews with primary caregivers, child assessments, and observations of parent-child interactions were completed when children were 3 years old. Caregivers were diverse in race-ethnicity, language, and other characteristics. Regression analyses showed that 3-year-old program children performed better than did control children in cognitive and language development, displayed higher emotional engagement of the parent and sustained attention with play objects, and were lower in aggressive behavior. Compared with controls, Early Head Start parents were more emotionally supportive, provided more language and learning stimulation, read to their children more, and spanked less. The strongest and most numerous impacts were for programs that offered a mix of home-visiting and center-based services and that fully implemented the performance standards early.
Abstract 3: Loeb et al., 2007
This paper examines the effects of different child-care arrangements on children’s cognitive and social proficiencies at the start of kindergarten. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study, we identify effects using regressions. Overall, center-based care raises reading and math scores, but has a negative effect for socio-behavioral measures. However, for English-proficient Hispanic children, the academic gains are considerably higher and the socio-behavioral effects are neutral. The duration of center-based care matters: the greatest academic benefit is found for those children who start at ages 2–3 rather than at younger or older ages; negative behavioral effects are greater the younger the start age. These patterns are found across the distributions of family income. The intensity of center-based care also matters: more hours per day lead to greater academic benefits, but increased behavioral consequences. However, these intensity effects depend on family income and race.

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